REVISIONES, METAANÁLISIS Y ENSAYOS

The role of nursing in the prevention of catheter-associated infections in hemodialysis: A literature review

El papel de la enfermería en la prevención de las infecciones asociadas al catéter en hemodiálisis: revisión de la literatura

Volumen 6, Número 2

Volumen 6, Número 2

Julio-Diciembre 2022

14-22

Patricia Echeverría-Vásquez (1), Ivan Ramos-Martínez (2), Leticia Hernández-González (3), Eduardo Pérez Campos (3), Laura Pérez Campos Mayoral (4), María Teresa Hernández-Huerta (5), Edgar Ramos-Martínez (6).

Afiliaciones:

1. Nursing Department, Instituto Oaxaqueño de Desarrollo Integral. Oaxaca, México.
2. Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Ciudad de México, México.
3. Tecnológico Nacional de México/ITOaxaca. Oaxaca, México.
4. Research Centre Medicine UNAM-UABJO, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma “Benito Juárez” de Oaxaca. Oaxaca, México.
5. CONACyT- Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma “Benito Juárez” de Oaxaca. Oaxaca, México.
6. Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Ciudad de México, México.

Correspondencia:

Edgar Ramos-Martínez: edgargus2@gmail.com

© Echeverría-Vásquez P, Ramos-Martínez I, Hernández-González L, Pérez E, Pérez L, Hernández-Huerta MT, et al. The role of nursing in the prevention of catheter-associated infections in hemodialysis: A literature review.

Conflict of Interest Statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Disclosure of Grants: None.

Sugerencia de cita:

Echeverría-Vásquez P, Ramos-Martínez I, Hernández-González L, Pérez E, Pérez L, Hernández-Huerta MT, et al. The role of nursing in the prevention of catheter-associated infections in hemodialysis: A literature review. Rev Cadena Cereb. 2022; 6(2): 14-22.

Recibido: 14/03/2022.
Aceptado: 27/05/2022.
Publicado: 20/08/2022.

RESUMEN

Introducción: Las infecciones asociadas al catéter venoso central son la principal causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en los pacientes en hemodiálisis. El personal de enfermería es el que principalmente realiza la manipulación del acceso vascular en el momento de la inserción, mantenimiento o retirada del catéter. El papel del personal de enfermería es fundamental en la prevención de infecciones locales y sistémicas.

Objetivo: Determinar las principales intervenciones implementadas por el personal de enfermería para reducir el número de infecciones asociadas a catéter en hemodiálisis.

Metodología: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en el periodo agosto 2021 a enero 2022. La búsqueda fue realizada en bases de datos como PubMed, Scopus, Access Medicine, Wed of Science, Medigraphic, EBSCO, Science Direct, y Google Scholar. Los términos de búsqueda fueron: (infections) AND (hemodialysis) AND (nursing).

Resultados: Se seleccionaron 94 estudios de los cuales se identificaron las principales medidas para la prevención de infecciones durante la instalación, mantenimiento y remoción del catéter para hemodiálisis. Ademas, se identificaron las limitantes de la evidencia para algunos procedimientos y los puntos que requieren mayor investigación.

Conclusiones: Las principales estrategias utilizadas para reducir la bacteriemia relacionada con los catéteres en hemodiálisis son: 1) el uso estricto de medidas higiénicas por parte del personal sanitario, 2) el uso de profilaxis antibiótica en el lugar de salida 3) la impregnación en la luz del catéter con solución antimicrobiana de bloqueo, 4) la formación continua y 5) la aplicación de un protocolo.

Palabras Clave:

Catéter venoso central; infecciones; bacteriemia; hepatitis viral; intervención de enfermería.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Central venous catheter-associated infections are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. The nursing staff is the one who mainly performs the manipulation of the vascular access at the time of insertion, maintenance or removal of the catheter. The role of the nursing staff is fundamental in the prevention of local and systemic infections.

Objective: To determine the main interventions implemented by nursing staff to reduce the number of catheter-associated infections in hemodialysis.

Methodology: A literature review was conducted from August 2021 to January 2022. A search was conducted in databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Access Medicine, Wed of Science, Medigraphic, EBSCO, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. The search terms were: (infections) AND (hemodialysis) AND (nursing).

Results: Ninety-four studies were selected from which the main measures for infection prevention during hemodialysis catheter installation, maintenance, and removal were identified. In addition, we identified the limitations of the evidence for some procedures and the points requiring further research.

Conclusions: The main strategies used to reduce catheter-related bacteremia in hemodialysis are 1) strict use of hygienic measures by healthcare personnel, 2) use of antibiotic prophylaxis at the exit site 3) impregnation of the catheter lumen with antimicrobial blocking solution, 4) continuous training, and 5) implementation of a protocol.

Keywords:

Central venous catheter; infections; bacteremia; viral hepatitis; nursing intervention.

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